Woodcock-Johnson test (WJ) – Overview, Types and Scoring

The standard score (SS) on the Woodcock Johnson Test - IV describes a child’s performance relative to the average performance of the comparison group.

Woodcock-Johnson test (WJ) – Overview, Types and Scoring

The Woodcock-Johnson Tests (WJ III) is a legitimate and solid appraisal apparatus of both subjective capacities and accomplishment among kids and grown-ups. It depends on the most current hypothetical model of insight, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) hypothesis.

I. Woodcock-Johnson test (WJ) overview

Created in 1977 by Richard Woodcock and Mary E. Bonner Johnson, the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities is one of the most well known IQ tests accessible nowadays. Most as of late modified in 2014 (alluded to as the WJ IV), the Woodcock-Johnson test is a knowledge test that can be utilized on members from the age of 2 right to individuals in their 90s. The test is comparative in nature, and can frequently be utilized instead of, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) for an instructive determination of kids. The test is utilized essentially to quantify capacity for scholarly accomplishment, oral language, educational aptitude, and in overall cognitive skills.
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What are the Woodcock-Johnson Tests?

The Woodcock-Johnson test is a multiple choice intelligence test that can be administered by schools, psychologists, and testing centers. The test includes what are known as the Standard Battery and Extended Battery of tests. Previously, the Woodcock-Johnson III test ( also known as the WJ-III test) was used to develop intelligence index scores for the General Intellectual Ability (GIA) and Brief Intellectual Ability (BIA). With the introduction of the WJ IV test, there are now three test batteries, which can be used independently or in combination. Those batteries are:

The comprehensive series of exams is designed to measure general intellectual ability, as well as academic achievement, scholastic aptitude, cognitive abilities and oral language. The series includes two separate batteries: the WJ-III Tests of Achievement and the WJ-III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. The WJ-III tests are used for many reasons, including planning educational and individual programs, diagnosing learning disabilities, research and growth assessment. The test has been found to be especially helpful in the identification and documentation of discrepancies between one’s ability and achievement level.

The WJ-III is designed to be tailored for people of all ages, from two to 99. Age-based norms for scoring purposes are provided by month of age as well as by grade from kindergarten through graduate school.

 

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Thirteen tests are available in the WJ-IV series. The tests are short, each averaging only about five minutes. Tests can be combined differently depending on the goals of the assessment. The Cognitive Standard set of seven tests takes approximately 35 to 45 minutes to complete, while the Achievement Standard set of eleven tests takes between 55 and 65 minutes to complete. Tests are completed in a paper-and-pencil format, and questions vary in style from multiple-choice to short answer and other types.

Tests and their sub-topics include:

     -    Comprehension-Knowledge

            -    Verbal Comprehension

            -    General Information

     -    Long-Term Retrieval

            -    Visual-Auditory Learning

            -    Retrieval Fluency

     -    Visual Processing

            -    Spatial Relations

            -    Picture Recognition

     -    Auditory Processing

            -    Sound Blending

            -    Auditory Attention

     -    Fluid Reasoning

            -    Concept Formation

            -    Analysis-Synthesis

     -    Processing Speed

            -    Visual Matching

            -    Decision Speed

     -    Short-Term Memory

            -    Numbers Reversed

            -    Memory for Words

     -    Incomplete Words

     -    Auditory Working Memory

     -    Visual-Auditory Learning – Delayed

    -    Rapid Picture Naming

    -    Planning

    -    Pair Cancellation

In summary, there are:

  • The WJ IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities. This test is utilized to distinguish learning issues and individual qualities and shortcomings. This is like other insight tests, for example, the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Intelligence tests;

  • The WJ IV Tests of Achievement. This test battery is utilized to quantify math and understanding capability and contrast scholastic accomplishment in connection with the subject's scholarly information;

  • The WJ IV Tests of Oral Language. This test battery is utilized to evaluate language capability.

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II. Woodcock-Johnson Scoring - Woodcock-Johnson IV Scoring

Three types of statistics or scores are generated by the Woodcock Johnson-IV.

  • Level of development;

  • Comparison with peers;

  • Degree of proficiency.

Level of Development

Age equivalents

An age equivalent (AE) or age score, mirrors the kid's presentation as far as age level in the norming test at which the normal score is equivalent to the youngster's score. For instance, if a kid named Sam is 8 years of age and gets an AE of 12.1 on a specific test, the right understanding would be, "Test outcomes show that Sam's exhibition on this test is equivalent to that of a normal multi year old."

Grade equivalent

A grade equivalent (GE), or grade score, similarly mirrors the youngster's exhibition as far as the evaluation level of the norming test at which the normal score is equivalent to the kid's crude score. For instance, if a kid named Rita, a seventh grader, got a GE of 6.5 on the Reading Fluency test, the right understanding would be, "Rita is a seventh grader who as of now performs at the mid-6th grade level in understanding familiarity."

Comparison with Peers

Standard Score

The standard score (SS) on the WJ-IV describes a child’s performance relative to the average performance of the comparison group. The scale is the same as the IQ test. In other words, the average standard score is 100 with a standard deviation of 15. For example, if a child named John had a standard score of 85 in the calculation test, he would be functioning in the low average range for that particular skill.

Percentile Rank

A percentile rank (PR) portrays a kid's relative remaining to their friends on a size of 1 – 100. In this manner, a percentile rank of 6 would show that solitary 6 youngsters out of a hundred out of an examination gathering (comparative age and instruction level) would score as low or lower.

Relationship Between Standard Score, Percentile Rank, and Classification

Score Range

Percentile Rank

Range Classification

131 and above

98 to 99.9

Very Superior

121 to 130

92 to 97

Superior

111 to 120

76 to 91

High Average

90 to 110

25 to 75

Average

80 to 89

9 to 24

Low Average

70 to 79

3 to 8

Low

69 and below

0.1 to 2

Very Low

 

Degree of Proficiency: Relative Proficiency Index (RPI)

This measurement is especially helpful in anticipating the kid's acclimation to a specific scholastic program. The RPI predicts a kid's degree of capability on assignments that run of the mill age or evaluation companion would perform with 90% capability. For instance, assume a specific kid created a RPI of 55/90 on the count test. This implies, on comparable math errands, the youngster would exhibit 55% capability, though a similar age or evaluation friend would show 90% capability. If you don't mind note the denominator in the RPI is consistently 90 (speaking to 90% effectiveness on the test or errand) though the numerator shifts from 0 – 100 and speaks to how capable the specific youngster tried is on that task. Table two presents the translations of RPI scores.
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Interpretation of RPI Scores

Reported RPIs

Functionality

Implications for Academic Achievement

100/90

Very Advanced

Extremely Easy

98/90 to 100/90

Advanced

Very Easy

95/90

Within Normal Limits to Advanced

Easy

82/90 to 95/90

Within Normal Limits

Manageable

67/90 to 82/90

Mildly Impaired to Within Normal Limits

Difficult

24/90 to 67/90

Mildly Impaired

Very Difficult

3/90 to 24/90

Moderately Impaired

Extremely Difficult

0/90 to 3/90

Severely Impaired

Impossible

AE = Age Equivalent

The child’s performance on a particular task is presented in terms of the age level of an average performance on that task.

GE = Grade Equivalent

The child’s performance on a particular task is presented in terms of the grade level of an average performance on that task.

Easy to Diff = Easy to difficult

This statistic provides the age range of what the child would find easy to very difficult on a particular academic task.

RPI = Relative Proficiency Index

This statistic provides the level of proficiency on a particular task. SS = Standard Score This statistic compares the child’s performance to others of his age (average standard score is 100).

III. Woodcock-Johnson Test of cognitive abilities

The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities incorporate both the Standard Battery and the Extended Battery. The Standard Battery comprises of tests 1 through 10 while the Extended Battery incorporates tests 11 through 20. There is likewise a Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Supplement to the Tests of Cognitive Abilities with an extra 11 psychological tests. All of which consolidated takes into consideration an impressively itemized investigation of intellectual capacities. The Cattell–Horn–Carroll hypothesis factors that this test inspects depend on 9 expansive layer capacities which are: Comprehension-Knowledge, Long-Term Memory, Visual-Spatial Thinking, Auditory Processing, Fluid Reasoning, Processing Speed, Short-Term Memory, Quantitative Knowledge and Reading-Writing. A General Intellectual Ability (GIA) or Brief Intellectual Ability (BIA) might be gotten. The BIA score is gotten from three intellectual tests which incorporate Verbal Comprehension, Concept Formation, and Visual Matching. These three intellectual tests measure three capacities; Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc), Fluid Reasoning (Gf), and Processing Speed (Gs), which best speaks to a person's verbal capacity, thinking capacity, and productivity in performing psychological assignments. The BIA takes around 10 to 15 minutes to control and is particularly helpful for screenings, re-assessments that don't require a far reaching scholarly appraisal, or exploration that needs a short yet solid proportion of knowledge. Then again, the GIA acquired from the WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities give a progressively extensive appraisal of general capacity (g) and the score depends on a weighted mix of tests that best speaks to a typical capacity basic all intelligent exhibition. 

 

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"The new Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-IV-COG) is a battery that assesses qualities and shortcomings among psychological capacities".

 

New tests and bunches depend on expansive psychometric proof and neuroscientific research. In its overhaul, accentuation has been put on the most significant psychological capacities. The WJ-IV-COG tests and groups yield significant indicative data, are valuable in recognizing exceptionalities and inabilities, and can be straightforwardly connected to intercessions or lodging. The center arrangement of Tests (1-7) are utilized for ascertaining the General Intellectual Ability (GIA) score and that give the premise to the intra-subjective variety methodology.
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The WJ-IV-COG includes 18 tests, 7 of which are new:

Standard Battery

Extended Battery

Test 1: Oral Vocabulary;

Test 2: Number Series;

NEW Test 3: Verbal Attention;

NEW Test 4: Letter-Pattern Matching

NEW Test 5: Phonological Processing;

Test 6: Story Recall;

NEW Test 7: Visualization;

Test 8: General Information;

Test 9: Concept Formation;

Test 10: Numbers Reversed

Test 11. Number-Pattern Matching;

NEW Test 12: Nonword Repetition;

Test 13: Visual-Auditory Learning;

Test 14: Picture Recognition;

Test 15: Analysis-Synthesis;

Test 16: Object-Number Sequencing;

Test 17: Pair Cancellation;

Test 18: Memory for Words.

 

Online scoring is included with every kit, using standard Web browsers.

IV. Woodcock-Johnson test of achievement

The WJ IV ACH incorporates 20 tests for estimating four wide scholastic areas: perusing, composed language, arithmetic, and scholarly information. A totally new arrangement, with new tests and bunches, bolsters a wide scope of indicative evaluation requirements for a wide assortment of experts. Assurance of scholarly qualities and shortcomings has never been simpler. Another examination of accomplishment scores to scholarly information can give extra data to help decide whether an increasingly far reaching assessment ought to be thought of. Eleven of the most regularly utilized accomplishment tests are remembered for the Standard Battery, which has three equal structures. There is a solitary type of the Extended Battery containing nine extra indicative estimates that can be utilized with any type of the Standard Battery.

"An observation checklist aligned with each of the tests of the Standard Battery provides an opportunity for documentation of important qualitative observations that may affect score interpretation".

There are three Standard Battery types of the WJ IV Tests of Achievement (Form A, Form B, and Form C). A solitary type of the all-encompassing Battery can be utilized with any of the three types of the Standard Battery. The three-structure setup of the WJ IV ACH Standard Battery underpins current evaluation rehearses that depend on shared appraisal and correspondence obligations among a group of experts. In certain settings, scholarly evaluators shift back and forth between utilization of Form An and Form B for beginning appraisal and post-mediation testing while Form C is held for use in any resulting extensive assessment by another expert. Utilization of the various structures by at least one analysts permits exact correlation of assessment results across time while decreasing reliance on a solitary type of the test and forestalls potential over-presentation to things in some random structure

Tests in the WJ IV ACH

Standard Battery

Extended Battery

• Test 1: Letter-Word Identification

• Test 2: Applied Problems

• Test 3: Spelling

• Test 4: Passage Comprehension

• Test 5: Calculation

• Test 6: Writing Samples

• Test 7: Word Attack

• Test 8: Oral Reading—NEW

• Test 9: Sentence Reading Fluency

• Test 10: Math Facts Fluency

• Test 11: Writing Fluency

• Test 12: Reading Recall—NEW

• Test 13: Number Matrices—NEW

• Test 14: Editing

• Test 15: Word Reading Fluency—NEW

• Test 16: Spelling of Sounds

• Test 17: Reading Vocabulary

• Test 18: Science

• Test 19: Social Studies

• Test 20: Humanities

 

NEW TESTS 

A few new achievement tests give more noteworthy broadness of inclusion in the WJ IV ACH. The Oral Reading test gives a normalized evaluation of oral perusing execution that expands the extent of perusing familiarity appraisal in the WJ IV. The Reading Recall test surveys perusing perception in an organization that intently matches study hall perusing appreciation assignments. The Word Reading Fluency test extends the value of the WJ IV for assessment of understanding rate. Number Matrices surveys arithmetic critical thinking in a framework thinking group. 

NEW ACHIEVEMENT CLUSTERS 

A few new perusing groups increment the demonstrative advancement of the WJ IV ACH. These bunches are intended to address contemporary evaluation needs. As indicated by the latest amendment of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004), challenges in familiar perusing can be viewed as an inability for reasons for administration qualification. The new WJ IV Reading Fluency group joins a proportion of quiet understanding familiarity and a proportion of oral understanding familiarity. Since speed of perusing may extensively influence scholarly execution, the WJ IV Reading Speed group surveys the fast word examination and sentence understanding abilities that are vital for scholastic achievement. These groups supplement the other perusing bunches in the WJ IV demonstrative framework: Broad Reading, Basic Reading Skills, Reading Comprehension, and another three-test and multi-faceted measure called Reading Comprehension - Extended. A profoundly dependable and comprehensively prescient two-test Reading bunch that incorporates both sight word perusing and perusing understanding abilities is currently accessible for some, essential assessment purposes.
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V. Woodcock-Johnson IV TESTS OF ORAL LANGUAGE

 

woodcock johnson test of cognitive abilities

Totally new to the WJ IV, a committed test easel contains a lot of oral language and language-related estimates that involve a significant indicative enhancement to the WJ IV COG and WJ IV ACH. The WJ IV OL tests likewise work as an independent battery of tests that are helpful for oral language appraisal, assurance of English (and Spanish) language capability, and for correlation of qualities and shortcomings among oral language and language related capacities for an increasingly complete perusing, composing, or dyslexia assessment. For instance, the new Segmentation test offers inspectors an exceptionally prescient three-section test for estimating basic perusing related aptitudes engaged with breaking works into parts and phonemes. This test supplements the Sound Blending test that gauges the partner expertise of mixing sounds into words.

“As a demonstrative enhancement to the WJIV ACH or COG, the Oral Language battery gives proportions of listening appreciation, oral articulation, sound mindfulness, phonetic coding, and speed of lexical access that can yield bits of knowledge into watched learning issues. A person's degree of oral language cognizance—in English or Spanish—can be contrasted with their present degrees of scholastic accomplishment”.

 

TESTS IN THE WJ IV OL

• Test 1: Picture Vocabulary

• Test 2: Oral Comprehension

• Test 3: Segmentation—NEW

• Test 4: Rapid Picture Naming

• Test 5: Sentence Repetition

• Test 6: Understanding Directions

• Test 7: Sound Blending

• Test 8: Retrieval Fluency

• Test 9: Sound Awareness

• Test 10: Vocabulario sobre dibujos

• Test 11: Comprensión oral

• Test 12: Comprensión de

 indicaciones

 

The WJ IV OL also includes distinct clusters for evaluation of Listening Comprehension and Oral Expression. A brief Sound Awareness test may be administered to screen for any phonological problems that may suggest the need for further evaluation.

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